History of Maine Indians - The French Indian Wars
The French and Indian Wars (1688 - 1763) was a generic names for a series of wars, battles and conflicts involving the French colonies in Canada and Louisiana and the 13 British colonies, which included Maine, consisting of King William's War (1688-1699), Queen Anne's War (1702-1713), King George's War (1744 - 1748) and the French and Indian War aka the Seven Years War (1754-1763). Various Maine Indian tribes were allied to the French and British colonies during the French Indian Wars which raged for nearly 75 years.
Fast Facts about the History of Maine Indians
The climate, land, history, environment and natural resources that were available to the indigenous Indian tribes in Maine resulted in the adoption of the Northeast Woodlands culture
- Name of State: Maine
- Meaning of State name: Named because the state region is a mainland
- Geography, Environment and Characteristics of the State of Maine: Appalachian Mountains, some rugged terrain, long sand beaches on southern coast; northern coast is rocky and there are fjords.
- Culture adopted by Maine Indians: Northeast Woodlands Cultural Group
- Languages: Iroquoian and Algonquian
- Way of Life (Lifestyle): Hunter-gatherers, farmers, fishers, trappers
- Types of housing, homes or shelters: Chickees, Wigwams (aka Birchbark houses) and Longhouses
History Timeline of the Maine Indians
- 10,000 B.C. : Paleo-Indian Era (Stone Age culture) the earliest human inhabitants of America who lived in caves and were Nomadic hunters of large game including the Great Mammoth and giant bison
- 3000 BC: Culture of the "Red Paint" people - their burial grounds showed that the graves were lined with red clay
- 1000 BC: Earliest Indian tribes were the Míkmaq of eastern Maine and New Brunswick and the Abnaki
- 1524: Giovanni da Verranzano explored the coast of Maine
- 1604: Pierre du Guast Sieur de Monts established the first recorded European colony
- 1675: The start of the 'Indian Wars' (1675-1760) which would include the French and Indian Wars
- 1675: The 'Indian Wars' commenced in the Plymouth Colony
- 1675: 1675-1676 - King Philip's War. so named after Metacom (King Philip) of the Wampanoag tribe, who was called Philip by the English. The war was bloody and bitterly fought by the colonists against the Wampanoags, Narragansetts, Nipmucks, Pocumtucks, and Abenakis. The Narragansett tribe were nearly exterminated during this War.
- 1677: Waldron and Frost sent to the Kennebec to subdue the Indians - peace was declared in 1678
- 1688: 1688 - 1763 The French and Indian Wars between France and Great Britain for lands in North America consisting of King William's War (1688-1699), Queen Anne's War (1702-1713), King George's War (1744 - 1748) and the French and Indian War aka the Seven Years War (1754-1763)
- 1688: (1688-1699) King William's War (part of the French and Indian Wars) between France and the Wabanaki Confederacy and England and the Iroquois Confederacy. Peace Treaty made at Pemaquid. August 11,1693. and was ratified on Jan. 7. 1699
- 1702: (1702-1713) Queen Anne's War (part of the French and Indian Wars) between the French and Spanish colonies allied with the Wabanaki Confederacy, Mohawk, Choctaw, Timucua, Apalachee and Natchez tribes against the British colonies allied with the Muscogee (Creek), Chickasaw and Yamasee tribes.
- 1722: 1722 - Wabanaki-New England War of 1722–1725 aka Father Rale's War or Lovewell's War between the Wabanaki Confederacy, Abenaki, Pequawket, Míkmaq and Maliseet against the New England Colonies and the Mohawks
- 1744: (1744–1748) King George's War (part of the French and Indian Wars) between the French colonies allied with the Wabanaki Confederacy and the British colonies allied with Iroquois Confederacy
- 1749: Father Le Loutre’s War (1749–1755), also known as the Indian War, the Míkmaq War and the Anglo-Míkmaq War
- 1754: (1754-1763) French and Indian War known in the US as the Seven Years War, (part of the French and Indian Wars) between the colonies of France allied with the Wabanaki Confederacy, Algonquin tribes, Abenaki, Míkmaq, Mohawk, Lenape, Ojibwa, Ottawa, Shawnee, Wyandot and Great Britain allied with the Iroquois Confederacy, Onondaga, Oneida, Seneca, Tuscarora, Mohawk, Cayuga, Catawba and Cherokee tribes
- 1763: Treaty of Paris
- 1775: 1775 - 1783 - The American Revolution
- 1776: July 4, 1776 - United States Declaration of Independence
- 1803: The United States bought the Louisiana Territory from France for 15 million dollars for the land
- 1812: 1812 - 1815: The War of 1812 between U.S. and Great Britain, ended in a stalemate but confirmed America's Independence
- 1820: Maine was admitted to the Union
- 1830: Indian Removal Act
- 1832: Department of Indian Affairs established
- 1861: 1861 - 1865: The American Civil War.
- 1862: U.S. Congress passes Homestead Act opening the Great Plains to settlers
- 1865: The surrender of Robert E. Lee on April 9 1865 signalled the end of the Confederacy
- 1887: Dawes General Allotment Act passed by Congress leads to the break up of the large Indian Reservations and the sale of Indian lands to white settlers
- 1969: All Indians declared citizens of U.S.
- 1979: American Indian Religious Freedom Act was passed
History of Maine Indians - Destruction and Decline
The history of the European invasion brought epidemic diseases such as tuberculosis, cholera, influenza, measles and smallpox. The Native Indians of Maine had not developed immunities against these diseases resulting in huge losses in population. Exploitation including the leverage of taxes, enforced labor and enslavement were part of their history, taking their toll on the Maine Indians.