The women of the Arikara tribe were responsible for making the clothes worn by the people. Most garments were sewn from the soft, tanned skins of deer (buckskin) and buffalo hide. Clothes was often decorated with paint, porcupine quills or beadwork. Arikara clothing for both men and women were adorned with ornaments, especially necklaces and earrings.
What clothes did the Arikara women wear?
The type of clothes worn by the Arikara women were knee-length dresses and leggings. The women also wore the buffalo robes to keep warm and dry. The dresses of the Arikara women that were used for special ceremonies were intricately decorated with beads. Dresses were also painted with symbols that reflected their tribal identity and family values celebrating acts of courage by their men or sacrifices made for the well-being of the family and tribe. Arikara women wore their hair long worn in two, thick braids that were often decorated with beads.
What language did the Arikara tribe speak?
The Arikara tribe spoke in the Caddoan language.
The Arikara Star Charts
The Arikara, like the Skidi band of Pawnee Native Indians, believed that the stars signaled times to plant crops and revealed the timing of sacred ceremonies. They developed their mapping tradition by creating sky charts that were used in rituals and to teach about the constellations. The Sky chart also told the story of the creation of the universe and of the Arikara people.
What did the Arikara tribe eat?
The food that the Arikara tribe ate included the crops they raised of corn, sunflower seeds, beans, pumpkins and squash. The food from their crops was supplemented by meat, especially bison, that was acquired on the hunting trips. The meats also included deer, elk, bear and wild turkey. These foods were supplemented with roots and wild vegetables such as spinach, prairie turnips and potatoes together with berries and fruits such as melon. When food was scarce the Arikara tribe ate dried buffalo meat, called pemmican. The Arikara tribe were often called “corn-eaters,” and are represented in Native Indian sign language by imitating the shelling of corn, by holding the left hand still, the shelling being done with the right.
What weapons did the Arikara use?
The weapons used by the Arikara tribe included bows and arrows, stone ball clubs, hatchet axes, spears, lance and knives. Painted war shields were used on horseback as a means of defence.
Who were the most famous leaders and chiefs of the Arikara tribe?
The most famous leader and chief of the Arikara tribe was Stan-au-pat (Chief Bloody Hand). The Arikara tribe became allies of the Mandan and Hidatsa Native Indian Tribes. The tribe were enemies of the Lakota Sioux and the Assiniboine tribes.
Arikara History Timeline: What happened to the Arikara tribe?
The following history timeline details facts, dates and famous landmarks and battles fought by the Arikara Nation. The timeline explains exactly what happened to the Arikara tribe. The Arikara have originally formed a single tribe with the Gros Ventre.
Arikara History Timeline
1400: The Arikara migrate to the Plains
1541: Coronado encounters the Arikara at the Big Blue River and Mill Creek Valley in present day Kansas
1600s: The Arikara became strongly associated with the Skidi, one of the tribes of the Pawnee confederacy and shared much of their culture and farming lifestyle living in fortified villages of earth lodges
1650: The Arikara trade with the French at Elk Horn River (Present day Nebraska)
1700's: The Arikara continue migrating north and built villages in the South Dakota area. They eventually established a trading center in South Dakota
1738: Arikara recorded as having and trading horses
1804: The Lewis and Clark expedition visited and established friendly relations with the Arikara tribe
1800's: The Arikara tribe become hostile to the whites due to the aggressive behaviour of the traders
1823: The Arikara War against the US, led by Chief Bloody Hand, erupted along the upper Missouri River in Dakota Territory following Arikara attacks on the boats of American traders
1825: Treaty signed with the US
1849: Cholera and smallpox epidemics led to the extermination of many Arikara and the destruction of their villages
1850: The depleting number of Arikaras formed alliances with the Mandan and Hidatsa tribes
1851: The Treaty at Fort Laramie made agreements to the territories of the Arikara, Mandan and Hidatsa tribes
1866: The Three Tribes negotiate the Treaty of 1866 with the US and lose more lands on the northeast side of the Missouri River
1870: The tribe was moved to their present reservation at Fort Berthold together with the Hidatsa and Mandan tribes
Arikara History Timeline
The Story of Arikara
For additional facts and information about legends refer to the Arikara Story of the Magic Windpipe.