French and Indian Wars

French Indian War

French and Indian Wars Summary and Definition

French and Indian Wars Summary and Definition: The French and Indian Wars (1688-1763) was a bitter series of battles stretching over a period of 75 years between Great Britain and France for the possession of North America and their Indian allies from the Eastern woodlands tribes.

The French and Indian Wars were so named because because of the importance of Indian participation in these conflicts. The Iroquois confederacy of Native Indians were allied to the British and most of the Algonquian speaking tribes referred to as the Wabanaki Confederacy were allied to the French. The French and Indian Wars culminated in the Seven Years War that ended the contest between the French and British bringing victory to Great Britain. The French and Indian Wars was a generic name for a series of wars, battles and conflicts involving the French colonies in Canada and Louisiana and the 13 British colonies consisting of King William's War (1688-1699), Queen Anne's War (1702-1713), King George's War (1744 - 1748) and the French and Indian War (1754-1763).

French and Indian Wars - The Indian Allies
The names of the Eastern Woodland Indian tribes who were allies to the French and British at different times during the French and Indian Wars, generalised as the Iroquois Confederacy and the Algonquian speaking tribes, generalised as the Wabanaki Confederacy were as follows:

Tribes allied to the British during the French and Indian Wars: The Iroquois Confederacy
The Native Indian tribes of the Iroquois Confederacy were initially a confederation of 5 tribes: Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga and Seneca. The Cherokee  and Catawba tribes also fought for the English

Tribes allied to the French during the French and Indian Wars: The Algonquians - the Wabanaki Confederacy
The Wabanaki Confederacy was between five Algonquian speaking people consisting of the Abenaki, Mícmac, Penobscot, Passamaquoddy and Maliseet tribes. Other tribes were also involved including the Lenape, Ojibwa, Ottawa, Shawnee and Wyandot

French and Indian Wars - Extension of the wars in Europe
The series of intermittent North American conflicts and battles fought during the French and Indian Wars between 1688 and 1763 represented colonial events related to the European dynastic wars. The super powers in Europe including Great Britain, France and Spain fought in Europe and North America to expand their empires. The wars in Europe that spilled over into the claims for lands in North America were the:

  • War of the Grand Alliance in Europe (1688 - 1697) and King William's War

  • War of the Spanish Succession in Europe (1701 - 1714) and Queen Anne's War

  • War of the Austrian Succession in Europe (1740 - 1748) and the King George's War

  • Seven Years War in Europe (1756 - 1763) and the French Indian War

Because of the confusion over the same names attributed to the Seven Years War in both North America and Europe this conflict is referred to as the French Indian War in America. To clarify further, the French and Indian Wars (plural) was the generic name given to the individual King William's War, Queen Anne's War, King George's War and the French Indian War (singular). For additional Facts and info refer to the French in America. The following map shows the land claims made by the French, British and Spanish, the boundary line of the lands of the Iroquois confederacy and the disputed areas of the New World during the French and Indian Wars.

French and Indian Wars - King William's War Summary
King William's War (1688-1699) is the name given to the first conflicts in the French and Indian Wars. It was named after the King William III who was the English monarch at the time of the conflict. King William's War was the North American extension of the War of the Grand Alliance in Europe. King William's War involved French Canadians and New England colonists and their Indian allies. The English captured Port Royal, Acadia (which later became Nova Scotia), but failed to take Quebec. The French won conflicts at Schenectady, New York, and in New England but failed to take Boston. The war ended with the Treaty of Rijswijk which was ratified on January 7, 1699. The peace did not last long, and within five years, the colonies were embroiled in the next of the French and Indian Wars which was named Queen Anne's War.

French and Indian Wars - Queen Anne's War Summary
Queen Anne's War (1702-1713) is the name given to the second of the conflicts in the French and Indian Wars. It was named after the Queen Anne who was the English monarch at the time of the conflict. Queen Anne's War was the counterpart of the War of the Spanish Succession in Europe. In addition to the two main combatants England and France, the war also involved a number of American Indian tribes and Spain, which was allied with France. During Queen Anne's War American colonial settlements along the New York and New England borders with Canada were raided by French forces and their Indian allies during this period of the French and Indian Wars. The British captured of Port Royal in 1710 that resulted in the French lands called Acadia becoming the British province of Nova Scotia. Under the Treaty of Utrecht (1713), Great Britain also acquired Newfoundland and the Hudson Bay region from France during this important conflict in the French and Indian Wars.

French and Indian Wars - King George's War Summary
King George's War (1744 - 1748) is the name given to the third of the series of conflicts in the French and Indian Wars. It was named after the King George who was the English monarch at the time of the conflict. King George's War was the North American extension of the War of the Austrian Succession in Europe. King George's War involved disputes over the boundaries of Nova Scotia and the borders of northern New England and control of the Ohio Valley. The war ended with the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1748 that restored conquered territory but failed to resolve colonial issues that had arisen during the French and Indian Wars.

French and Indian Wars - The French Indian War
The French Indian War (1754-1763) is the name of the fourth and final series of conflicts in the French and Indian Wars. It was the North American counterpart of the Seven Years War that was fought in Europe against France and Austria. The Seven Years War in Europe had been caused by the commercial and colonial rivalry between Britain and France and the conflict in Germany between Prussia and Austria. The North American dispute was whether the upper Ohio River valley was a part of the British empire or part of the French Empire. The population of the area was predominantly occupied by British settlers but France had made the greatest inroads into the exploration, trade, and Indian alliances in the area. In 1754 the French gained a victory and ousted a British force, including a colonial militia under Colonel George Washington, at Fort Necessity, Pennsylvania. Until 1757 France continued to dominate, but in 1758 Great Britain increased aid to its troops based in North America and won victories at Louisbourg, Fort Frontenac, and Fort Duquesne in Pittsburgh. The final British victory at the Battle of Quebec in 1759 led to the fall of New France in 1760. The conflict known as the French and Indian Wars ended with the Treaty of Paris in 1763 during which France ceded its North American territory to Great Britain. So ended the French and Indian Wars.

The Escalation of the French and Indian Wars
The number of British troops who fought in the French and Indian Wars started in King William's War (1688-1699) with just under 2,000 men in arms on both sides. The scale of escalation and the severity of each successive conflict in the French and Indian Wars ended with 25,000 British regular soldiers fighting in the Seven Years War. 

History & Causes of the French and Indian Wars
What were the causes of the French and Indian Wars? Some of the history and causes of the Indian Wars were dictated by political policies and beliefs which shaped the historical background to the causes of the French and Indian Wars:

  • Colonialism: In the 1700's the Europeans brought with them the system of colonialism, primarily to generate income, which encompassed "the policy and practice of a power in extending control over weaker peoples or areas."

  • European Imperialism: The policy of forcefully extending a nation's authority, power and influence by territorial gain and by the establishment of economic and political dominance

Effects of the French and Indian Wars
The effect of the French and Indian Wars helped to bring about important changes in the British colonies. The American colonies felt less dependent militarily on the British by the end of the French and Indian Wars.  The American Colonists became more concerned with their own problems than that of the 'Mother Country' and put greater value on their own institutions. Following the French and Indian Wars British incurred a massive war debt which led to them reversing their policy of Salutary Neglect that ultimately led to  insurrection in the colonies, the Boston Tea Party, the American Revolution and the Declaration of Independence.

History Timeline of the French and Indian Wars
This short History Timeline of the French and Indian Wars provides fast facts and information about the history, years & dates, key events and famous people who fought in the French and Indian Wars.

  • 1688: 1688 - 1763 The French and Indian Wars between France and Great Britain for lands in North America. The Iroquois Indians were allied to the British and the Algonquian speaking tribes were allied to the French. The French and Indian Wars was an intermittent series of wars, battles and conflicts consisting of the:
    King William's War (1688-1699)
    Queen Anne's War (1702-1713)
    King George's War (1744 - 1748)
    French and Indian War (1754-1763)
  • 1688: (1688-1699) King William's War (part of the French and Indian Wars) between France and the Wabanaki Confederacy and England and the Iroquois Confederacy.
  • 1699: Peace Treaty called the Treaty of Rijswijk was made at Pemaquid. August 11,1693. and was ratified on January 7,1699
  • 1702: (1702-1713) Queen Anne's War (part of the French and Indian Wars) between the French and Spanish colonies allied with the Wabanaki Confederacy, Mohawk, Choctaw, Timucua, Apalachee and Natchez tribes against the British colonies allied with the Muscogee (Creek), Chickasaw and Yamasee tribes.
  • 1710: The British captured of Port Royal in 1710 that resulted in the French lands called Acadia becoming the British province of Nova Scotia during the French and Indian Wars.
  • 1713: The Treaty of Utrecht ends Queen Anne's War by which Great Britain acquired Newfoundland and the Hudson Bay region from France during the French and Indian Wars.
  • 1722: Wabanaki-New England War of 1722–1725 aka Father Rale's War or Lovewell's War in Maine
  • 1736: The Chickasaw Wars (1736, 1739 and 1752) were fought between the Chickasaw allied with the British against the French and their allies the Choctaws and Illini.
  • 1744: (1744–1748) King George's War (part of the French and Indian Wars) between the French colonies allied with the Wabanaki Confederacy and the British colonies allied with Iroquois Confederacy
  • 1748: The war ended King George's War with the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle that restored conquered territory but failed to resolve colonial issues.
  • 1749: Father Le Loutre’s War (1749–1755), also known as the Indian War, the Míkmaq War and the Anglo-Míkmaq War
  • 1754: (1754-1763) French Indian War also known in the US as the Seven Years War, (part of the French and Indian Wars) between the colonies of France allied with the Wabanaki Confederacy, Algonquin tribes, Abenaki, Míkmaq, Mohawk, Lenape, Ojibwa, Ottawa, Shawnee, Wyandot and Great Britain allied with the Iroquois Confederacy, Onondaga, Oneida, Seneca, Tuscarora, Mohawk, Cayuga, Catawba and Cherokee tribes
  • 1763: The Treaty of Paris ends the Seven Year War (1754-1763) and the French and Indian Wars. Canada, east of the Mississippi River, was added to the British empire.
King William's War (1688-1699)
Queen Anne's War (1702-1713)
King George's War (1744 - 1748)
French and Indian War (1754-1763)
The Indian Wars
Native Indian Tribes Index
French Indian War (1754 - 1763)

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