Chief Pontiac led a rebellion of a number of tribes against the British and the colonists. Pontiac's Rebellion followed the defeat of the French in the French Indian War (1754-1763) and the conclusion of the series of conflicts referred to as the French and Indian Wars. Many of the Native American Indians, primarily in the Great Lakes region, had close trading relationships with France and were appalled to find that the lands were now under the control of the British. Pontiac's Rebellion was an attempt by an alliance of some Native American Indian tribes to prevent Great Britain from occupying the land previously claimed by France. Pontiac's War failed but the rebellion hastened the implementation of the Royal Proclamation of 1763 establishing a massive boundary called the Proclamation Line. The Proclamation of 1763 was designed to calm the fears of American Native Indians by halting the westward expansion by colonists whilst expanding the lucrative fur trade.
Names of Native American tribes in Pontiac's Rebellion
The names of the tribes who supported Chief Pontiac's rebellion were:
- Tribes of the Great Lakes region: Ottawa, Chippewa, Ojibwa, Potawatomi, and Huron
- Tribes of Ohio region: Delaware (Lenape), Shawnee, Wyandot and Mingo
- Tribes located in eastern Illinois region: Miami, Kickapoo, Mascoten and Piankashaw
The tribes of the Iroquois Confederacy were British allies and did not want to become involved with Pontiac's War. However, many of the Seneca tribe decided to join the rebellion.
Pontiac's Rebellion - Pays d'en haut
The Native Indian tribes involved in Pontiac's Rebellion lived within an area controlled by New France before their defeat in the French Indian War known as the 'Pays d'en haut' meaning the upper country.
Facts about Pontiac's Rebellion
Who fought in Pontiac's Rebellion? When did the conflict start and when did the conflict end? What were the causes of Pontiac's Rebellion? What was the significance of Pontiac's Rebellion? What were the results and effects of Pontiac's Rebellion? Interesting history and facts about Pontiac's Rebellion:
- Name of Conflict: Pontiac's Rebellion
- Alternative Names for Pontiac's Rebellion: Pontiac's Rebellion, Pontiac's Conspiracy, Pontiac's Uprising or Pontiac's War
- Year Pontiac's Rebellion started: 1763, Ohio River Valley region
- Year Pontiac's Rebellion ended: 1766
- Combatants in Pontiac's Rebellion: An alliance of many Native American tribes against the British
- Result of Pontiac's Rebellion: Pontiac's Rebellion ended in defeat for the Indians
- Famous Leaders in Pontiac's Rebellion: Chief Pontiac Chief Guyasuta of the Seneca tribe. Jeffrey Amherst, Henry Bouquet and Thomas Gage
Specific Causes of Pontiac's Rebellion
What were the specific causes of Pontiac's Rebellion? The specific causes of Pontiac's Rebellion were:
The tribes involved in Pontiac's rebellion believed that the French treated them with honor, hospitality, equality and respect as opposed to the British who believed they were superior to the Indians
The tribes viewed the British with great mistrust
The British permitted white settlement on Native American territories
History Timeline of Pontiac's Rebellion
This short History Timeline of Pontiac's Rebellion provides fast facts and information about the history, years & dates, key events and famous people who fought in Pontiac's Rebellion.
- 1760: The final British victory at the Battle of Quebec in 1759 led to the demise of New France in 1760.
- 1760: September 1760: Montreal falls to the British
- 1760: 9 September 1760: The British occupied New France after Governor Vaudrueil surrendered the colony
- 1763: The Treaty of Paris ends French and Indian War (1754-1763). Canada, east of the Mississippi River, was added to the British empire.
- 1763: Pontiac's Rebellion, aka the Pontiac War (1763–66), broke out in the Ohio River Valley. Chief Pontiac (1720-1769) led a rebellion of a number of tribes against the British
- 1763: October 7, 1763: King George III signs the Royal Proclamation of 1763 designed to establish a border line
- 1763: Summer of 1763: Chief Pontiac launched attacks on British garrisons - only Fort Detroit and Fort Pitt (Fort Duquesne) remained in British hands
- 1764: 5 March 1764: Governor Murray organized a large expedition from Quebec to reclaim the forts. Sieur de Rigaud commanded the Canadians. Colonel John Bradstreet commanded the expedition regaining Fort Niagara and Fort Detroit
- 1766: Chief Pontiac agreed to peace terms sealing the end of Pontiac's Rebellion
The Significance and Effects of Pontiac's Rebellion
The effects and significance of Pontiac's Rebellion in history is as follows:
The Native Americans tribes had failed to drive away the British but equally the British were unable to conquer the Native American Indians
Pontiac's Rebellion demonstrated to the Native Indian tribes that they had power in numbers which led to alliances between tribes to fight their common enemy - the white settlers
The British came to the conclusion that they needed the Native Americans to supply the furs for their lucrative fur trade and established the massive boundary called the Proclamation Line which halted the westward expansion by colonists
The Royal Proclamation of 1763 officially recognized that indigenous people had certain rights to the lands they occupied, it has been called the Indians' "Bill of Rights"
The colonists were forced to 'run for their lives' during the conflict and fear and hatred of the Native Americans resulted in the forming of vigilante groups such as the Paxton Boys
The colonists were also expected to pay a tax to meet the costs of establishing and manning the borders of the Proclamation Line which led to the belief that the King had sided with the Indians despite Pontiac's Rebellion, against the interests of the settlers. This contributed to the causes of the American Revolution.