Pueblo Revolt

Spanish Conquistador and Indian

Pueblo Revolt Summary and Definition

Pueblo Revolt Summary and Definition: The Pueblo Revolt was a short conflict which occurred during 1680. The Pueblo Revolt was located in New Mexico and Arizona between the Pueblo Alliance and the Spanish.

The Pueblo Revolt of 1680 was instigated by a coalition of tribal leaders, acting under the direction of Popé, a Tewa Indian from San Juan Pueblo. Together they founded the Pueblo Alliance consisting of Jemez, Keresan Pueblos, Piro Pueblos, Tewa Pueblos, Tiwa Pueblos, Zuni, and Hopi peoples. The Pueblo Revolt was a great victory for the Pueblo but the Spanish eventually re-conquered the lands in 1692.

Facts about the Pueblo Revolt

Who fought in the Pueblo Revolt? When did the conflict start and when did the conflict end? What were the causes of the Pueblo Revolt? What was the significance of the Pueblo Revolt? What were the results and effects of the Pueblo Revolt? Interesting history and facts about the Pueblo Revolt:

  • Name of Conflict: Pueblo Revolt
  • Alternative Names: Pueblo Revolt of 1680 or Popé's Rebellion
  • Location: New Mexico and Arizona
  • Year of Pueblo Revolt: 1680
  • Combatants: Pueblo Native Americans and Spanish colonists
  • Famous Leaders: Popé, Governor Antonio de Otermín

Specific Causes of the Pueblo Revolt
What were the specific causes of the Pueblo Revolt? The specific causes of the Pueblo Revolt at a local level were:

  • Forced Labor: Spanish soldiers and priests imposed a harsh forced-labor system called encomienda, which resembled slavery

  • Religion: Spanish soldiers and priests were intent on converting the Pueblo Indians to Christianity and prevented the Pueblo Indians from communing with their gods

The Significance and Effects of the Pueblo Revolt
The effects and significance of the Pueblo Revolt in history is that

  • There was a humiliating, but temporary, setback in the expansion of the Spanish empire

  • Revivalism: There was a surge in the Pueblo movement (revivalism) to purge their homelands from foreign influence and return to traditional, Pre-Spanish ways of life such as beliefs and customs, ritual purification, performance of traditional ceremonies

  • The destruction of all Christian objects and churches

History Timeline of the Pueblo Revolt
This short History Timeline of the Pueblo Revolt provides fast facts and information about the history, years & dates, key events and famous people who fought in the Pueblo Revolt.

  • 1540: The Spanish explorer and conquistador, Francisco Vasquez de Coronado (1510-1554) explores the area and claims the land for Spain
  • 1598: Juan de Onate 1595-1628 establishes the first Spanish capital of San Juan de los Caballeros. Spanish Priests are intent on converting Native Indians to Christianity
  • 1598: Spanish soldiers and priests imposed a forced-labor system, called encomienda, which resembled slavery and prevented the Pueblo Indians from communing with their gods
  • 1599: Battle at Aroma between Pueblo natives and Spaniards
  • 1626: Spanish Inquisition established in New Mexico
  • 1650: Apaches start to maid raids in New Mexico attacking and wiping out pueblo villages
  • 1668: Popé, a Tewa Indian from the San Juan Pueblo, suggests the Pueblo people rise up against the harsh Spanish rule. He is unable to gain agreement to the plan from other tribes who are unwilling to accept any unified leadership
  • 1675: The Spanish continue with their vigorous efforts to replace the rituals of the Indians with those of Christianity. Governor Juan Trevino ordered the arrest, imprisonment and corporal punishment of 47 Pueblo medicine men following accusations that they "bewitched" a local friar. Three of the Medicine Men were hanged and one committed suicide.
  • 1675: Popé is one of the Medicine Men arrested by the Spanish, thrown into prison and tortured by the Spanish. He refuses to convert too Christianity
  • 1675: To gain the release of 70 Pueblo warriors take Governor Juan Trevino hostage and threaten to revolt. The Governor releases the remaining prisoners.
  • 1675: Popé is released from prison and starts to build a chain of alliances amongst the Pueblo people
  • 1676 / 77: The Pueblo Alliance sends a message to the governor a message declaring that they would kill all the Spaniards before they would permit any more of their medicine-men (Shaman) to be harmed
  • 1676 / 77: The Spanish Governor, aware of the conspiracy, appeals to Mexico to send reinforcements
  • 1677: A small number (47) of new soldiers arrive in New Mexico in response to the Governor's request for reinforcements
  • 1680: August 9: Governor Antonio de Otermin is informed of the planned uprising
  • 1680: August 10, 1680 Fray Juan Pio is killed during a confrontation with Pueblos
  • 1680: August 12: The historic Pueblo revolt, organized and led by Popé, begins. They plan to exterminate all Spaniards and the killings start
  • 1680: August 15: Popé and Governor Antonio de Otermin meet. Both parties make demands which are refused
  • 1680: Governor Antonio de Otermin retreats with his troops, to his residence in the Palace of the Governors, Santa Fe
  • 1680: August 20: Governor Antonio de Otermin battles against Pueblo Indians in Santa Fe, killing 300 Indians
  • 1680: August 21: Governor Antonio de Otermin and about 1,000, commence a long retreat from New Mexico to El Paso in Texas
  • 1680: During the Pueblo Revolt approx, 2,350 Spaniards are killed, missions, together with their furnishings and records are all destroyed
  • 1680: The Pueblo Revolt was a great victory for Popé and the Alliance
  • 1681: The Spanish attempt to regain territory in New Mexico but are beaten by the army of Popé
  • 1687: Another Spanish attempt fails
  • 1688: The Death of Popé
  • 1692: The Spanish eventually re-conquered the lands in New Mexico led by the new Governor, Diego de Vargas

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