Tuscarora War

Tuscarora Camp

Tuscarora War Summary and Definition

Tuscarora War Summary and Definition: The Tuscarora War was a fought between colonists and settlers and various  indigenous tribes in the area of North Carolina (North and South Carolina were one colony until 1729).
 

The Tuscarora tribe of Iroquoian speaking Indians were led by King Hancock in the south of the region.  The Tuscarora War erupted due to land encroachment by the colonists, trade disputes and the actions of some settlers in enslaving some of the Tuscarora Indians. John Lawson,  the Surveyor General of North Carolina, turned a 'blind eye' to these activities and was captured and executed by the Tuscarora tribe in 1711, which started the war. Chief Hancock enlisted the help of the Pamplico, Cothechney, Core, Mattamuskeet and the Matchepungoe tribes. Chief Tom Blunt in the North of the region refused to join the forces of Chief Hancock and sided with the British. Expeditions against the Tuscarora consisting of militia and Indian allies, including the Yamasee, were led by Colonel John Barnwell and Colonel James Moore. Chief Tom Blunt captured Chief Hancock who was executed by the British. There were many casualties in this bloody conflict - and Indian captives were sold into slavery. The Tuscarora tribe were forced to leave the area to escape from the colonists and settled in New York. The Tuscarora later became the sixth nation in the Iroquois Confederacy. The Yamasee became discontent with the British leading to the Yamasee War in 1715.

Fast Facts about the Tuscarora War
Who fought in the Tuscarora War? When did the conflict start and when did the conflict end? What were the causes of the Tuscarora War? What was the significance of the Tuscarora War? What were the results and effects of the Tuscarora War? Interesting history and facts about the Tuscarora War:

  • Name of Conflict: Tuscarora War
  • Alternative Names for the Tuscarora War: Chief Hancock's War
  • Year the Tuscarora War started: 1711
  • Year the Tuscarora War ended: 1715
  • Combatants in the Tuscarora War: British, American, Dutch, and German colonists and settlers and Indian allies
  • Combatants in the Tuscarora War: Tuscarora, Pamplico, Cothechney, Core, Mattamuskeet and the Matchepungoe tribes
  • Result of the Tuscarora War: Victory for the settlers and colonists. A peace treaty was eventually signed in June 1718, although hostilities had mostly ceased before this date
  • Famous Leaders in the Tuscarora War: The British were led by Edward Hyde, Colonel John Barnwell and Colonel James Moore. Chief Tom Blount sided with the British. The Tuscarora belligerents were led by Chief Hancock who was executed by the British in 1712

Specific Causes of the Tuscarora War
What were the specific causes of the Tuscarora War? The specific causes of the Tuscarora War at a local level were:

  • Some of the terms of the Treaty of Utrecht that ended the Queen Anne's War were ambiguous, and concerns of various Indian tribes were not included in the treaty, which resulted in future conflicts in the French and Indian Wars and the Tuscarora War

  • Land: Disputes over Tuscarora Native Indian homelands increased

  • A series of forts were built to house the forces of the United States Army antagonising the indigenous tribes

  • The treatment of the Tuscarorans and the practise of selling captives, including women and children into slavery

History Timeline of the Tuscarora War
This short History Timeline of the Tuscarora War provides fast facts and information about the history, years & dates, key events and famous people who fought in the Tuscarora War.

  • 1700: The Tuscarora were a powerful tribe in Carolina and had established numerous large villages in the area. The Tuscarora primarily lived on the Roanoke, Tar, Pamlico, and Neuse Rivers. N.B. North and South Carolina were one colony until 1729
  • 1702: (1702-1713) Queen Anne's War (part of the French and Indian Wars) between the French and Spanish colonies allied with the Wabanaki Confederacy, Mohawk, Choctaw, Timucua, Apalachee and Natchez tribes against the British colonies allied with the Muscogee (Creek), Chickasaw and Yamasee tribes.
  • 1710: Colonists established the town of New Bern in an area occupied by the Tuscarora tribe in one of their villages called Chattoka
  • 1711: September 1711: John Lawson, the Surveyor General of North Carolina, was captured and executed by the Tuscarora tribe in retaliation for the encroachment of Tuscarora lands by the colonists and the kidnapping and enslavement of tribe members
  • 1711: 22 September 1711: Chief Hancock leads the Tuscarora against the colonists and 130 settlers are killed along the Pamlico, Neuse and Trent Rivers
  • 1711: October 27: The governor of South Carolina, Edward Hyde, orders Colonel John Barnwell, with 600 militia and about three hundred Indian allies to head a retaliatory expedition against the tribe. More than 300 Indians were killed, and over 100 made prisoners, mostly women, and subsequently sold into slavery
  • 1712: January 30: John Barnwell and his men destroys the Tuscarora village at Narhantes
  • 1712: April 7: Siege of Chief Hancock's village Catechna begins
  • 1712: April 17: Chief Hancock's village falls to the colonists
  • 1712: The fighting escalated and the British eventually bribed Chief Blunt and his forces to change sides and fight with the colonists
  • 1712: August 8: Carolina sends the Moore expedition totalling nearly 1000 including Indian allies, against the Tuscarora villages
  • 1712: Chief Blunt captures Chief Hancock and the settlers execute him
  • 1713: March 1: The Siege of Neoheroka
  • 1713: March 23: The Southern Tuscarora lose Neoheroka with over 1,000 people killed or captured
  • 1713: Many of the Southern Tuscarora leave the area to escape from the colonists and headed for New York.
  • 1718: June 1718: Chief Tom Blunt was recognized by the Legislature of North Carolina as King Tom Blount and granted 56,000 acres of land on the Roanoke River under the treaty with the colony in June 1718

The Significance and Effects of the Tuscarora War
The effects and significance of the Tuscarora in history is that the tribe was forced to leave their homelands. The languages, culture, religion, beliefs and ceremonies of conquered people fell into decline as they were absorbed into the Iroquois confederation. The number of people of the Tuscarora nation have significantly and sadly diminished. Their demise led to the prosperity of the white settlers and colonists who gained the land, natural resources and wealth of their lands. A direct result of the Tuscarora War highlighted the inability of the Lords Proprietors to act decisively and led to separate governments for North and South Carolina. During 1729 seven of the Lords Proprietors sold their interests in Carolina to the Crown, and both North Carolina and South Carolina became royal colonies.

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French and Indian Wars
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