History of New York Indians - The French Indian Wars
The French and Indian Wars (1688 - 1763) was a generic names for a series of wars, battles and conflicts involving the French colonies in Canada and Louisiana and the 13 British colonies, which included New York, consisting of King William's War (1688-1699), Queen Anne's War (1702-1713), King George's War (1744 - 1748) and the French and Indian War aka the Seven Years War (1754-1763). Various New York Indian tribes were allied to the French and British colonies during the French Indian Wars which raged for nearly 75 years.
Fast Facts about the History of New York Indians
The climate, land, history, environment and natural resources that were available to the indigenous Indian tribes in New York resulted in the adoption of the Northeast Woodlands culture.
- Name of State: New York
- Meaning of State name: Named after the Duke of York and Albany, the brother of King Charles II of England in 1664
- Geography, Environment and Characteristics of the State of New York: Mountains in the northeast, lowlands from Lake Ontario along the Canadian border. Atlantic coastal plain
- Culture adopted by New York Indians: Northeast Woodlands Cultural Group
- Languages: Iroquoian and Algonquian
- Way of Life (Lifestyle): Hunter-gatherers, farmers, fishers, trappers
- Types of housing, homes or shelters: Chickees, Wigwams (aka Birchbark houses) and Longhouses
History Timeline of the New York Indians
- 10,000 B.C. : Paleo-Indian Era (Stone Age culture) the earliest human inhabitants of America who lived in caves and were Nomadic hunters of large game including the Great Mammoth and giant bison
- 7000 BC: Archaic Period in which people built basic shelters and made stone weapons and stone tools
- 1000 AD: Woodland Period - homes were established along rivers and trade exchange systems and burial systems were established
- 1500s - 1600's: New York explored by Europeans from Great Britain, Sweden, Holland and France
- 1763: 1763-1675 -- Pontiac's Rebellion, Chief Pontiac's tries to force British out of the West, Michigan, New York and Pennsylvania.
- 1688: 1688 - 1763 The French and Indian Wars between France and Great Britain for lands in North America consisting of King William's War (1688-1699), Queen Anne's War (1702-1713), King George's War (1744 - 1748) and the French and Indian War aka the Seven Years War (1754-1763)
- 1688: (1688-1699) King William's War (part of the French and Indian Wars) between France and the Wabanaki Confederacy and England and the Iroquois Confederacy. Peace Treaty made at Pemaquid. August 11,1693. and was ratified on Jan. 7. 1699
- 1690: Schenectady Massacre - French and Algonquins destroy Schenectady, New York, killing 60 settlers
- 1778: Cherry Valley Massacre - British and Seneca Indian forces attack a fort and village in eastern New York
- 1754: 1754 - 1763: The French Indian War is won by Great Britain against the French so ending the series of conflicts known as the French and Indian Wars
- 1763: Treaty of Paris
- 1775: 1775 - 1783 - The American Revolution
- 1776: July 4, 1776 - United States Declaration of Independence
- 1803: The United States bought the Louisiana Territory from France for 15 million dollars for the land
- 1812: 1812 - 1815: The War of 1812 between U.S. and Great Britain, ended in a stalemate but confirmed America's Independence
- 1830: Indian Removal Act
- 1832: Department of Indian Affairs established
- 1861: 1861 - 1865: The American Civil War.
- 1862: U.S. Congress passes Homestead Act opening the Great Plains to settlers
- 1865: The surrender of Robert E. Lee on April 9 1865 signalled the end of the Confederacy
- 1887: Dawes General Allotment Act passed by Congress leads to the break up of the large Indian Reservations and the sale of Indian lands to white settlers
- 1969: All Indians declared citizens of U.S.
- 1979: American Indian Religious Freedom Act was passed
History of New York Indians - Destruction and Decline
The history of the European invasion brought epidemic diseases such as tuberculosis, cholera, influenza, measles and smallpox. The Native Indians of New York had not developed immunities against these diseases resulting in huge losses in population. Exploitation including the leverage of taxes, enforced labor and enslavement were part of their history, taking their toll on the New York Indians.