Queen Anne's War was the counterpart of the War of the Spanish Succession in Europe. In addition to the two main combatants England and France, Queen Anne's war also involved a number of American Indian tribes and Spain, which was allied with France during this period. During Queen Anne's War American colonial settlements along the New York and New England borders with Canada were raided by French forces together with their Indian allies during this phase of the French and Indian Wars. The British captured of Port Royal in 1710 that resulted in the French lands called Acadia becoming the British province of Nova Scotia. Under the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713, Britain also acquired Newfoundland and the Hudson Bay region from France during this important conflict in the French and Indian Wars.
Location of Queen Anne's War
The location of the Queen Anne's War was fought on three fronts that consisted of:
The British colonies of New England fought with French and Indian forces based in Acadia and Canada
The British colonies based in St. John's, Newfoundland fought with the French based at Plaisance, Newfoundland
The British Province of Carolina and Georgia fought against Spanish in Florida and the French who were based at Mobile in Florida
Facts about the Queen Anne's War
Who fought in the Queen Anne's War? When did the conflict start and when did the conflict end? What were the causes of the Queen Anne's War? What was the significance of the Queen Anne's War? What were the results and effects of the Queen Anne's War? Interesting history and facts about the Queen Anne's War:
- Name of Conflict: Queen Anne's War
- Alternative Names for Queen Anne's War: French and Indian Wars
- Year Queen Anne's War started: 1702
- Year Queen Anne's War ended: 1713
- Combatants in Queen Anne's War: The Spanish and French and their Indian allies against the British. The Wabanaki Confederacy was between five Algonquian speaking people consisting of the Abenaki, Mícmac, Penobscot, Passamaquoddy and Maliseet tribes. Other tribes were also involved including Caughnawaga Choctaw, Timucua, Apalachee and the Natchez
- Combatants in Queen Anne's War: The British and their Indian allies. The Iroquois Confederacy was between an alliance of tribes headed by the Onondaga, Cayuga, Mohawk, Seneca and the Oneida tribe. The Creek, Chickasaw and Yamasee also fought for the English
- Result of Queen Anne's War: The Treaty of Utrecht ended Queen Anne's War, but the result was indecisive hence the continuation of the French and Indian Wars
- Famous Leaders in Queen Anne's War: Great Britain was led by Joseph Dudley, James Moore, Francis Nicholson and Hovenden Walker. The opposition was led by Joseph de Zuniga y Zerda, Daniel d'Auger de Subercase, Philippe de Rigaud and the Marquis de Vaudreuil
History Timeline of the Queen Anne's War
This short History Timeline of the Queen Anne's conflict provides fast facts and information about the history, years & dates, key events and famous people who fought in the Queen Anne's War.
- 1688: 1688 - 1763 The French and Indian Wars begin between France and Great Britain for lands in North America. The Iroquois Indians were allied to the British and the Algonquian speaking tribes were allied to the French.
- 1702: Queen Anne ascends to the English throne
- 1702: Queen Anne's War (1702-1713) part of the French and Indian Wars between the French and Spanish colonies allied with the Wabanaki Confederacy, Mohawk, Choctaw, Timucua, Apalachee and Natchez tribes against the British colonies allied with the Muscogee (Creek), Chickasaw and Yamasee tribes.
- 1702: The English capture and burn St. Augustine, Florida. Though the city remains under Spanish possession for another century, the mission system in Florida is destroyed
- 1704: The Apalachee massacre occured in western Florida. James Moore, the ex-governor of South Carolina, led 50 Englishmen and 1,000 Creek Indian allies against the Spanish and their Apalachee Native American allies during Queen Anne's War
- 1707: June 1707: The Union between England and Scotland created the 'United Kingdom of Great Britain' and the term British, as opposed to English, is then used in reference to the colonists in North America.
- 1713: 1713 The Treaty of Utrecht ends Queen Anne's War. Under the treaty, Britain gains Newfoundland and the Hudson Bay region of Canada, as well as the Caribbean island of St. Kitts.
- 1744: Peace prevails until the onset of King George's War (the third in the series of the French and Indian Wars) in 1744.
The Significance and Effects of the Queen Anne's War
The effects and significance of the Queen Anne's War in history at a local level were:
Queen Anne's conflict resulted in the transfer of the French claims to the territories of Arcadia, Hudson Bay and Newfoundland to the British
Some of the terms of the Treaty of Utrecht were ambiguous, and concerns of various Indian tribes were not included in the treaty, which resulted in future conflicts in the French and Indian Wars including the Yamasee War, Tuscarora War and the Father Rale's War. The Fox Wars also erupted during this period
Following the Treaty of Utrecht many British merchants found the terms of the treaty unacceptable and resorted to smuggling. This led to the 1738 War of Jenkin's Ear in which one of the smugglers, by the name of Jenkins, had his ship seized by a Spanish vessel and his ear was cut off. This incident was used as a pretext for war and American colonists attacked Spanish possessions in the Caribbean and mounted an expedition against Spanish Florida. The expedition failed but the conflicts of the French and Indian Wars would soon erupt again with King George's War.